Jhansi Fort is situated on Bangira hilltop in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was constructed in 1613 by Bir Sing Deo the king of Orchha. In 1728 Mohammed Khan Bangash the Mughal General attacked Maharaja Chattrasal. Peshwa Bajirao helped Maharaja Chattrasal to defeat the Mughal army. As a mark of gratitude, the Maharaja offered part of his state including Jhansi to Peshwa Bajirao. In 1742 the Peshwa appointed Naroshanker as the subedar of Jhansi. During his tenure of 15 years he extended the fort and built many buildings inside the fort. From 1766 to 1769 Vishwas Rao Laxman served as the subedar of Jhansi. Then Raghunath Rao (II) Newalkar was appointed the subedar of Jhansi. He was a very able administrator and built the Mahalakshmi temple and Ragunath temple.
During the time of Raja Gangadhar Rao, a generous and sympathetic administrator the local population of Jhansi was well satisfied. In 1842 Raja Gangadhar Rao married Manikarknika Tambe who was given the new name of Laxmi Bai. She gave birth to a boy named Damodar Rao, in 1851, who died after four months. The Maharaja adopted a child called Anand Rao, the son of Gangadhar Rao’s cousin who was renamed Damodar Rao on the day before the Maharaja died. The adoption was in the presence of the British political officer who was given letter from the Maharaja instructing that the child be treated with respect and that the government of Jhansi should be given to his widow for her lifetime. After the death of Maharaja in November 1853, because Damodar Rao (born Anand Rao) was adopted, the British East India Company, under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting Damodar Rao’s claim to the throne and annexing the state to its territories. In March 1854, Laxmi Bai was given an annual pension of Rs. 60,000/- and ordered to leave the palace and the fort. In 1857, the revolt broke out and she took the control of the fort and led Jhansi forces against those of the British East India Company.
Jhansi was besieged by the company forces of General Hugh Rose in March and April 1858 and was captured on 4th April 1858. Rani Laxmi Bai was able to make a daring escape on horseback from the fort and the city before the city was pillaged by Rose’s troops.
The fort of Jhansi spreads over 15 acres and the colossal structure measures about 312m in length and 225m in width. There are twenty two supports with a mammoth wall surrounded by a moat on both sides. The granite walls of the fort are between 16 and 20 feet thick and on the south side meet the city walls. There are 10 gates giving access to the fort. The Kadak Bijli cannon used in the uprising of 1857 can be seen inside the fort.