Indian giant squirrel or Malabar giant squirrel (Ratufa Indica). The Indian giant squirrel is an upper-canopy dwelling species, which rarely leave the trees, and construct their nests on tall, profusely branched trees. It travels from tree to tree with jumps of up to 6 meters. When in danger it often freezes or flattens itself against the tree trunk, instead of fleeing. Its main predators are the birds of prey and the leopards. They are active in the early hours of the morning and in the evening and rest during midday. These pictures were taken at Nagarhole National Park, Karnataka.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad in Gujarati, is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. Perched on the banks of Sabarmati River, this remarkably cosmopolitan city is rich with Muslim history and many architectural monuments. The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 11th century when it was known as Ashaval or Ashapalli. The city was founded in 1411 by Ahmed Shah, at the spot where he saw a hare chasing a dog (he was impressed by its bravery). He established Ahmedabad as the new capital of his Sultanate and built Bhadra Fort on the east bank of Sabarmati River. Square in form, enclosing an area of about forty three acres and containing 162 houses, the Bhadra fort had eight gates. The second fortification was built later by Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, with an outer wall 10km in circumference and consisting of 12 gates, 189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements. Almost 60 governors ruled Gujarat during the Mughal period including the future Mughal emperors Jagangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb.
In 1732 the Maratha army under Umabaisaheb Khanderao Dabhade, the only female commander- in- chief in the history of Marathas captured the fort from Mughal Sardar Joravar Khan Babi. Ahmedabad was conquered by the British in 1817 and the fort complex was used as a jail by the British.
Bhadra fort housed the royal palaces and the beautiful Nagina Baugh and the royal Ahmed Shah’s Mosque on the west side and an open area known as Maidan-Shahi on the east side. The fort complex was used as a royal court during his reign. On the eastern side of the fort, there is a triple gateway known as Teen Darwaza which was formerly the entrance to the royal square. The road beyond this gate leads to Manek Chowk, a mercantile square.
The citadel’s architecture is Indo-Sarcenic with intricately carved arches and balconies. There are Islamic inscriptions on the arches of the Fort. The palace contains royal suites, the imperial court, halls and a prison. A palace was also built during the time of Mughal governor Azam Khan known as Azam Khan Sarai in 1637. It was used as resting place for travelers in the Mughal era and a jail during British rule. There was a gibbet on the roof of this building used for hanging during the Gujarat sultanate and the British era. It was here that Ahmed Shah hanged his son-in-law who was convicted of murder.
A room in the north wing of Azam Khan Sarai was turned into a temple of Bhadra Kali during Maratha rule. The legend is that years ago Laxmi, the goddess of wealth, came to the gate of Bhadra Fort to leave the city in the night. Watchman Siddique Kotwal stopped her and identified her. He asked her not to leave the fort until he obtained permission from the king. He beheaded himself in order to keep goddess Laxmi in the city. Another version is that he was beheaded by the Sultan in order to prevent the goddess from leaving the city. It resulted in the prosperity of the city. There is a tomb near Bhadra gate dedicated to Siddique Kotwal and a temple to Bhadra Kali, representing Laxmi. A lamp in one of the holes in Teen Darwaza is lit continuously for more than six hundred years by a Muslim family and is dedicated to Laxmi.
When Mahmud Begada expanded and fortified the city there were eighteen darwazas or gates to the city, fifteen large gates and three small ones. Of the fifteen gates, one was closed and three were added later. Each of these gates had beautiful carvings, calligraphy and some of them even balconies. Each of these entrances to the city has unique names like Delhi Gate, Sarangpur Gate, Raipur Gate etc. The area surrounding these gates has adopted the name of the gate as the name of the locality. There were two gates constructed during the British time, after opening of railways connecting Bombay in 1864 to facilitate the movement of public. They are known as Prem Darwaja and Panchkuva gate. Panchkuva gate was built in 1871 for easy access to the railway station. This gate consists three pointed arches, the central one 18 feet wide and 28 feet high and each side gateway measuring 7 feet wide and 19 feet high.
The Sun Temple of Modhera was built during the reign of Bhima I of Solanki dynasty in 1026-27 AD. It resembles the better known Konark temple in Orissa, which it predates by 200 years. It was similarly designed so that the dawn sun shone on the image of Surya the sun god during the equinoxes.
Built in Solanki style the temple complex has three axially aligned components – the main shrine (garbhagriha) in a hall (gudhamandapa), the outer or assembly hall (sabhamandapa) and the sacred tank (kunda). The sabhamandapa is not in continuation with gudhamandapa but is placed little away as a separate structure. Both the structures are built on paved platform. Their roofs have collapsed a long ago. The platform of plinth is inverted lotus shaped.
The gudhamandapa measures 51×25 feet. It is almost equally divided into gudhamandapa, the hall and gabhagriha the shrine proper. The pradakshinamarga is formed by the passage between the walls of garbhagriha and the outer walls of gudhamandapa. The roof of the passage has stone slabs carved with rosettes.
Garbhagriha, the shrine proper, is square measuring 11 feet from inside. The outer walls of the shrine is highly decorated. The base and walls of the shrine and hall are divided into several stretches with unique carvings. The hall in front of the garbhagriha was roofed by a dome which is supported by eight principal pillars below arranged in an octagon, four pillars in front of shrine proper and two each in recesses of windows and door.
The sabhamandapa or the assembly hall has extensively carved exterior. There are 52 intricately carved pillars representing 52 weeks of the year. The roof was in shape of stepped pyramid, but no longer exists. Inside, the walnut shaped ceiling rises in tiers which has numerous floral girdles. It is 23 feet high and supported by pillars arranged in an octagon. Toranas or the decorated arches arise from the lower brackets of the pillars.
The tank in front of the temple is known as suryakunda. The flight of steps through kirti-torana leads to the reservoir. It is rectangular. It measures 176 feet from north to south and 120 feet from east to west. There are four terraces and recessed steps to descend to reach the bottom of the tank. Several miniature shrines and niches in front of the terrace wall have images of gods.
The waning of the Solanki dynasty and the decline in Sun worship and the vagaries of the Islamic inconoclasts and devastating earthquakes led to the decline of the Modhera Sun temple. This masterpiece of Solanki architecture was plundered and defaced by the armies of Allauddin Khilji. The marauding soldiers placed gun powder inside the sanctum and set fire to it, creating an explosion that caused the main shikhara to collapse. In spite of all this and its magnificent dome missing, the Modhera Sun temple still remains as an architectural wonder, which can amaze any visitor.
The temple is located at Modhera village of Mehasana district in the Indian state of Gujarat.