Roses

Roses to brighten up your Sunday…

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Golconda Fort and the Citadel – The erstwhile capital of the Qutub Shahi Dynasty

The Golconda fort is undoubtedly one of the most magnificent fortress complexes in India. The fortress rests on a granite hill 120 meters high surrounded with huge crenellated ramparts. Golconda also known as Gol konda (Round shaped hill) or Golla Konda (Shepherd’s hill) is a citadel cum fort. It is located 11 km from the city of Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana. The region is famous for the mines that have produced some of the world’s most famous gems like Koh-i-noor and Hope Diamond. The fort used to have a vault where once these diamonds were stored.

Golconda Fort was first built by the Kakatiya dynasty as part of their western defenses. The fort was rebuilt and strengthened by Rani Rudrama Devi and her successor Prataparudra. Later the fort came under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks, who defeated the Tughlaqi army occupying Warangal. It was ceded by Musunuri Kapaya Nayak to the Bahmini Sultante as part of the treaty in 1364. Under Bahmini rule, Golconda slowly rose to prominence and Sultan Quli Qutub-ul-Mulk was sent to Golconda as the governor in 1501 AD. Bahmini rule gradually weakened during this period and Sultan Quli formally became independent in 1538 AD, establishing the Qutub Shahi dynasty based in Golconda. Over a period of 62 years, the mud fort was expanded by the first three Qutub Shahi sultans into the present structure, a massive fortification of granite extending around 5 km in circumference. It remained the capital of the Qutub Shahi dynasty until 1590 when the capital was shifted to Hyderabad, but the fort remained to be the stronghold of the dynasty.

In January 1687 AD, Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb led his force to besiege the Qutub Shahi dynasty at Golconda Fort. He surrounded the fort with 100 canons in order to breach the granite walls of the fort but with no success. The siege of Golconda lasted 8 months and on various occasions it had pushed the massive Mughal army to its limits, in fact the Golconda fort was probably the most impregnable fort in South Asia. After a siege of 8 months, the Mughals entered the fort through a decisive victory but through the secret treachery of Sarandaz Khan, a military official in the army of the Qutub Shahi dynasty, who was bribed to open one gate and let the Mughals enter the fort. Aurangzeb left the fort intentionally in ruins.

The Golconda consists of four distinct forts with a 10 km long outer wall with 87 semicircular bastions (some still mounted with cannons), eight gateways and four drawbridges, with a number of royal apartments and halls, temples, mosques, magazines, stables etc. The lowest of these is the outermost enclosure into which we enter by “Fateh Darwaza” or Victory Gate (so called after Aurangzeb’s triumphant army marched in through this gate), studded with giant iron spikes (to prevent elephants from battering them down) near the southern corner. At Gateh Darwaza one can experience the fantastic acoustic effect. A hand clap at certain point below the dome at the entrance reverberates and can be heard clearly at the main hall, almost a kilometer away, a warning note to the royals in case of attacks.

It is an arduous task to discover every nook and corner of the Golconda fort which spreads across an area of 11 kms. A visit to the fort reveals the architectural beauty of the various buildings in the complex.

The external walls of the Golconda Fort
The external walls of the Golconda Fort
The external walls of the Golconda Fort
The external walls of the Golconda Fort
The Fateh Darwaza
The Fateh Darwaza
The Fateh Darwaza - a closer view
The Fateh Darwaza – a closer view
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort - The recently paved roads inside the fort
Inside the Golconda Fort – The recently paved roads inside the fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
One of the tanks in the fort
One of the tanks in the fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
The Taramati Mosque inside the fort
The Taramati Mosque inside the fort
The Taramati Mosque - Details
The Taramati Mosque – Details
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
The ruins of the palace
The ruins of the palace
More of the ruins
More of the ruins
Inside the Golconda Fort
Inside the Golconda Fort
Steps towards Baradari at the top
Steps towards Baradari at the top
The final and tough climb towards Baradari
The final and tough climb towards Baradari
Ruins of the palace - view from the top
Ruins of the palace – view from the top
Ruins of the palace - view from the top
Ruins of the palace – view from the top
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
You can see the Baradari at top (Baradari is a pavilion with 12 doors designed to allow free flaw of the air)
You can see the Baradari at top (Baradari is a pavilion with 12 doors designed to allow free flow of the air)
Finally at the top - in front of the Baradari
Finally at the top – in front of the Baradari
The Mahakali temple at the top of Golconda fort
The Mahakali temple at the top of Golconda fort
More ruins
More ruins
One of the cannons from the hill behind the Mahakali temple
One of the cannons from the hill behind the Mahakali temple
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
Mosque of Ibrahim inside the fort
Mosque of Ibrahim inside the fort
An inscription - nice calligraphy work
An inscription – nice calligraphy work
Inside the for
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
Inside the fort
Inside the fort - you can see the city of Hyderabad far behind
Inside the fort – you can see the city of Hyderabad far behind
The will inside the fort
The well inside the fort
A distant view of the Golconda Fort from Ibrahim Bagh few kilometres from the main entrance
A distant view of the Golconda Fort from Ibrahim Bagh few kilometres from the main entrance

Warangal Fort – A Legacy of the Kakatiya era

Warangal Fort is situated in Warangal in the Indian state of Telangana. It existed since 12th century when it was the capital of the Kakatiya dynasty. Most of the fort is in ruins and you can see the ancient fort walls scattered around the area. Warangal fort is spread over a radius of 19 km between Warangal and Hanamakonda. It was constructed during the reign of King Ganapti Deva and his daughter Rudramma Devi who ruled until 1289 AD and then under her grandson Prataparudra II, whose reign came to be known as the ‘Golden Age’ of Kakatiya dynasty.

The fort has four ornamental gates or arches, known as ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’, that originally formed the entrances to the now ruined great Shiva temple. This Kakatiyan arch has been adopted and officially incorporated into the Emblem of Telangana state after the state formation in 2014. The temple inside the fort was dedicated to the Mother Earth, Swayambhudevi.

In 1323, Muhammad bin Tughluq marched to Warangal with 65,000 mounted soldiers carrying archery, attacked the fort and plundered and destroyed the city. In keeping with tradition, he ordered the destruction of the Swayambhu Shiva temple where the state deity has been deified. All that is now visible of the temple are remnants scattered around the fort. There are many ruins of wall slabs, brackets and ceiling panels, which are exhibited in the outdoor museum.

Warangal Fort - one of the ornamental gates or arches, known as ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’
Warangal Fort – one of the ornamental gates or arches, known as ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’
Warangal Fort -   ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’, the details
Warangal Fort – ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’, the details
Warangal Fort - one of the ornamental gates or arches, known as ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’
Warangal Fort – one of the ornamental gates or arches, known as ‘Kakatiya Kala Thoranam’
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort - you can see the minute details of the dress and ornaments
Relics from the fort – you can see the minute details of the dress and ornaments
Relics from the fort - a pillar
Relics from the fort – a pillar
Relics from the fort - a monolithic Nandi statue
Relics from the fort – a monolithic Nandi statue
Relics from the fort - some of the wall panels
Relics from the fort – some of the wall panels
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort

warangal-fort-11

Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort

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Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort - this part of the ceiling
Relics from the fort – this part of the ceiling
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort - part of the ceiling
Relics from the fort – part of the ceiling
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort
Relics from the fort

Within 150 meters of the archaeological zone is the Kush Mahal, which is a public hall built in the 14th century by the Delhi Sultans, who had captured the fort. The mahal which is rectangular in shape is built with huge sloping walls, sliced by six arched openings on each of its sides. There are approach steps on the northeast corner that provides access to the top of the structure, which has scenic views of the entire fort complex. Unfortunately, I didn’t take a picture of Kush Mahal (or may be it got deleted by mistake) but I have the pictures of the exhibits and also views from the top of Kush Mahal.

One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
One of the relics exhibited in the gallery of Kush Mahal
View from top of Kush Mahal
View from top of Kush Mahal
View from top of Kush Mahal
View from top of Kush Mahal

Within the southern quarter of the archaeological zone is a big water tank. Inside this tank is a distinctive natural rock formation that protrudes above the water surface. This is called locally as Ourugallu (Single Rock) in Telugu, giving the name Warangal to the fort. A small temple is built over this rock. From the top of the rock one can get the panoramic view of the surrounding area.

The natural rock formation that protrudes above the water surface - There are stairs cut out to reach to the summit
The natural rock formation that protrudes above the water surface – There are stairs cut out to reach to the summit
The temple at the tope of the rock formation
The temple at the tope of the rock formation
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock
The view from the top of the rock